John Henry Newman: The Voice of Conscience

John Henry Newman: The Voice of Conscience:
How We Know God and How We Know about God

submitted by Jean Hite

I.  Conscience

“The Being of a God is as certain to me as the certainty of my own existence, though when I try to put the grounds of that certainty into logical shape I find a difficulty in doing so in mood and figure to my satisfaction.”[1]

John Henry Newman grounded his certainty of the existence of God in the testimony of conscience not the argument of logic.  He grounded the certainty of his own existence in feeling, experiencing and sensing:  “Sentio ergo sum.”[2]  Reaching beyond his subjective experience of finding God in the voice of his own conscience, Newman held that conscience pointed to the existence of God, a Supreme Governor and Judge.

II.  Self-knowledge

“I look out of myself into the world of men, and there I see a sight which fills me with unspeakable distress.  The world seems simply to give the lie to that great truth, of which my whole being is so full; and the effect upon me is, in consequence, as a matter of necessity, as confusing as if it denied that I am in existence myself.  If I looked into a mirror, and did not see my face, I should have the sort of feeling which actually comes upon me, when I look into this living busy world, and see no reflexion of its Creator.”[3]

For Newman, self-knowledge was realized by attending to conscience.  Newman also observed that through attention to the voice of conscience one is affirmed in his belief in the existence of God. Through intentional obedience to conscience one comes to an ever-expanding experiential knowledge of God and a deepening relationship with God even as God remains “hidden” in this world.

III.  Newman’s Argument

I am far from denying the real force of the arguments in proof of a God, drawn from the general facts of human society and the course of history, but these do not warm me or enlighten me; they do not take away the winter of my desolation, or make the buds unfold and the leaves grow within me, and my moral being rejoice.”[4]

Newman built his argument for the existence of God on conscience as a “first principle”.  His argument from conscience is an argument from experience, not from conceptual analysis.

IV.  Revelation

“Were it not for this voice speaking so clearly in my conscience and my heart, I should be an atheist or a pantheist or a polytheist when I looked into the world.[5]

For Newman listening to the Divine voice that speaks in and through the human conscience prepares the human ear, eye and heart to hear, see and accept the revelation of the One True Living God.

———————————————————————

I.  Conscience

A divine voice speaks to us in conscience.  It commands us to do right and avoid evil.  “It’s very existence throws us out of ourselves, and beyond ourselves, to go and seek for Him in the height and depth, whose Voice it is . . .  [It] carries on our minds to a Being exterior to ourselves,”[6] a Being higher and more powerful than ourselves, implying the existence of a Supreme Authority who is law giver and judge:  One to whom we are responsible, One whom we obey, One to whom we are accountable.  Conscience confronts us directly with God as the reality to whom we are subject and upon whom we depend.

Conscience is a highly complex phenomenon.  It is not an ethical intuition or ethical judgment; neither is it precisely a mental faculty or function.[7]  Newman writes that conscience has two aspects, two components which are distinct but inseparable: “a moral sense, and a sense of duty; a judgment of the reason and a magisterial dictate. Of course its act is indivisible; still it has these two aspects, distinct from each other, and admitting of a separate consideration. . . Thus conscience has both a critical and a judicial office. . . Here I have to speak of conscience in the latter point of view, not as supplying us, by means of its various acts, with the elements of morals, such as may be developed by the intellect into an ethical code, but simply as the dictate of an authoritative monitor. . .”[8]

The moral/critical aspect of conscience is “an intellectual sentiment . . . a sense of admiration and disgust, of approbation and blame: but it is something more than a moral sense; it is always, what the sense of the beautiful is only in certain cases; it is always emotional. No wonder then that it always implies what that sense only sometimes implies; that it always involves the recognition of a living object, towards which it is directed.”[9]

Newman’s primary focus on conscience does not mean that his religion is derived from or depends on morality.  His religious and spiritual convictions are formed not from the moral but from the judicial aspect of conscience.  The judicial aspect leads to the recognition of a Supreme Authority and serves as the foundation for Newman’s “proof of the existence of God.”[10]  This characteristic of “knowing” makes it an act of our rational, intelligent, cognitive nature.[11]

As a cognitive sense, conscience seeks after knowledge of the good which Creator intends for his creatures.  In the Judeo-Christian tradition, this “good” is called Natural Law, and it is “imprinted on the hearts” of humans by God.  Paul writes in the letter to the Romans:  “When Gentiles, who do not possess the law, do instinctively what the law requires, these, though not having the law, are a law to themselves.  They show that what the law requires is written on their hearts, to which their own conscience also bears witness; and their conflicting thoughts will accuse or perhaps excuse them.”  This passage is a reminder that according to Natural Law all humans are endowed with conscience.

Newman discusses the human apprehension of Divine Law in his Letter Addressed to the Duke of Norfolk:

The Divine Law, then, is the rule of ethical truth, the standard of right and wrong, a sovereign, irreversible, absolute authority in the presence of men and Angels. ‘The eternal law,’ says St. Augustine, ‘is the Divine Reason or Will of God, commanding  the observance, forbidding the disturbance, of the natural order of things.’ ‘The natural law,’ says St. Thomas, ‘is an impression of the Divine Light in us, a participation of the eternal law in the rational creature.’ This law, as apprehended in the minds of individual men, is called ‘conscience;’ . . . [It] still has, as [Divine Law], the prerogative of commanding obedience . . .this law is the rule of our conduct by means of our conscience. Hence it is never lawful to go against our conscience. . This view of conscience, I know, is very different from that ordinarily taken of it, both by the science and literature, and by the public opinion, of this day. It is founded on the doctrine that conscience is the voice of God, whereas it is fashionable on all hands now to consider it in one way or another a creation of man.”[12]

In taking on the label of “a creation of man”, conscience has often been construed (in our time as well as Newman’s) as the liberty to choose to follow one’s own intellectually conceived inclinations.  Newman continues:

“Conscience is not a long-sighted selfishness, nor a desire to be consistent with oneself; but it is a messenger from Him, who, both in nature and in grace, speaks to us behind a veil, and teaches and rules us by His representatives.”[13]

Another skewed connotation frequently associated with “conscience” is a preoccupation with a perceived forbidding, restrictive “Supreme Authority” – with the voice of God as punitive and/or inhibitive.  Newman reminded his listeners in his sermon “The Testimony of Conscience”[14] that his understanding of conscience was not the more recent concept related to guilt and contrition, but rather the “older catholic meaning” recalling the words of Paul in 2 Cor. 1:12: “Our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward.”  In this sermon Newman also quotes positive and uplifting references from the Psalms:  “a consciousness of innocence and integrity, a satisfaction in it, an appeal to God concerning it, and a confidence of God’s favour in consequence.”[15]

On the subject of justification and whether we can know with certainty in our worldly lifetime if we have attained justification, Newman says:

The nearest approach to such certainty which is possible, would seem to be afforded by the consciousness of openness and singleness of mind, this good understanding . . . between the soul and its conscience . . .  Perfectness of heart, simple desire to please God, ‘a spirit without guile’, a true and loyal will, where these are present, faith is justifying.” [16]

This statement begs the question:  “If the feeling of a good conscience is proof of justification and accords with Natural Law in that conscience is afforded to all humans, can a person outside the Church be justified?  Newman answers this question:  If that person is being honest it means he is accepted in the state in which he is (greater or lesser state) and that his faults and errors at present are not willful.  (J.H.: So does he fall short of justification?).   In the case of Church members, “a good conscience evidences God’s acceptance, according to that measure of acceptance which He gives in His Church, — that is, it evidences their justification.”[17]

Other scriptural expressions for living in accord with conscience (in good conscience) are:  “simplicity and sincerity”, “a perfect heart”, “walking with God with a perfect heart” and “serving God with one’s whole heart”.  Expressions carrying the opposite meaning (in bad conscience) include: “double-mindedness”, “of imperfect heart” and “hypocrite,” one who professes to be serving God faithfully, while he serves Him in only some one part of his duty.  (“He [who] is not serving God perfectly, [who] will not ask his heart [and] will not listen to it, trifles with his conscience.”[18])

II. Self-knowledge

Living in accord with conscience involves self-surrender; self-knowledge involves knowing of self in conscience.  The Psalmist is addressing God through conscience when he prays for help in obtaining self-knowledge: “ ‘Examine me, O Lord, and prove me; try out my reins and my heart,’ that is, lest he should be deceived in thinking himself what he was not. . . It is possible to be innocent, and to have that sense . . . [which] makes us happy in the thought of God’s eye being upon us.”[19]

On the other hand, living in discord with conscience and/or struggling to come back into right relationship with God elicits knowledge of the shadow side of self.  “The more a person tries to obey his conscience, the more he gets alarmed at himself for obeying it so imperfectly. His sense of duty will become more keen, and his perception of transgression more delicate, and he will understand more and more how many things he has to be forgiven. But next, while he thus grows in self-knowledge, he also understands more and more clearly that the voice of conscience has nothing gentle, nothing of mercy in its tone. It is severe, and even stern. It does not speak of forgiveness, but of punishment.”[20]

Newman writes: “Our great internal teacher of religion is . . . our Conscience. Conscience is a personal guide, and I use it because I must use myself; I am as little able to think by any mind but my own as to breathe with another’s lungs. Conscience is nearer to me than any other means of knowledge.”[21]

Conscience is not only an address from God as His own voice; His voice constitutes a call – a call that reaches and arises from the deepest part of our being – a call for a personal response.   Attending to conscience enables us to reach out to God at the same time we detect his presence in the center of our being.

“Thus conscience is a connecting principle between the creature and his Creator; and the firmest hold of theological truths is gained by habits of personal religion. When men begin all their works with the thought of God, acting for His sake, and to fulfill His will, when they ask His blessing on themselves and their life, pray to Him for the objects they desire, and see Him in the event, whether it be according to their prayers or not, they will find everything that happens tend to confirm them in the truths about Him which live in their imagination, varied and unearthly as those truths may be. Then they are brought into His presence as that of a Living Person, and are able to hold converse with Him, and that with a directness and simplicity, with a confidence and intimacy, ‘mutatis mutandis’, which we use towards an earthly superior; so that it is doubtful whether we realize the company of our fellow-men with greater keenness than these favoured minds are able to contemplate and adore the Unseen, Incomprehensible Creator.”[22]

Because conscience is the connecting principle between the creature and his Creator, Newman’s religion has both an “anthropocentric character” and a “theocentric character”[23]  with conscience situated at the intersection of Divine essence and human essence.  Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger expressed this image in these words:  “For Newman, the middle term which established the connection between authority and subjectivity is truth . . . Truth stands in the middle.”[24]

The intentional practice of obedience to conscience enriches and fine-tunes communion with the Divine.  As a Christian grows and matures in Divine relationship, he comes to see and know the character of his “hidden God” who speaks through conscience (and silence).[25]

“I say, then, that the Supreme Being is of a certain character, which, expressed in human language, we call ethical. He has the attributes of justice, truth, wisdom, sanctity, benevolence and mercy, as eternal characteristics in His nature, the very Law of His being, identical with Himself; and next, when He became Creator, He implanted this Law, which is Himself, in the intelligence of all His rational creatures.”[26]

An excerpt from Newman’s novel Callista serves to summarize Newman’s thoughts about self-knowledge and existence in combination with Divine knowledge and existence.  It speaks to the role of conscience in stimulating and uniting religious and moral aspects in the perfection of Christian faith.[27]

After a time, Callista said, “Polemo, do you believe in one God?”

“Certainly,” he answered; “I believe in one eternal, self-existing something.”

“Well,” she said, “I feel that God within my heart. I feel myself in His presence. He says to me, ‘Do this: don’t do that.’ You may tell me that this dictate is a mere law of my nature, as is to joy or to grieve. I cannot understand this. No, it is the echo of a person speaking to me. Nothing shall persuade me that it does not ultimately proceed from a person external to me. It carries with it its proof of its divine origin. My nature feels towards it as towards a person. When I obey it, I feel a satisfaction; when I disobey, a soreness—just like that which I feel in pleasing or offending some revered friend. So you see, Polemo, I believe in what is more than a mere ‘something.’ I believe in what is more real to me than sun, moon, stars, and the fair earth, and the voice of friends. You will say, Who is He? Has He ever told you anything about Himself? Alas! no!—the more’s the pity! But I will not give up what I have, because I have not more. An echo implies a voice; a voice a speaker.  That speaker I love and I fear.”[28]


III.  Newman’s Argument

Newman distrusted deductive reason.  In his “argument” for the existence of God he began, not with universal propositions but with concrete experiences involving the whole person, not just the intellect.  His Letter to the Duke of Norfolk included this observation:

All sciences, except the science of Religion, have their certainty in themselves; as far as they are sciences, they consist of necessary conclusions from undeniable premises, or of phenomena manipulated into general truths by an irresistible induction. But the sense of right and wrong, which is the first element in religion, is so delicate, so fitful, so easily puzzled, obscured, perverted, so subtle in its argumentative methods, so impressible by education, so biased by pride and passion, so unsteady in its course, that, in the struggle for existence amid the various exercises and triumphs of the human intellect, this sense is at once the highest of all teachers, yet the least luminous.”[29]

Newman didn’t totally reject intellectually argued proofs because he believed that faith and reason are in natural accord.  However, he held that it is impossible to effect religious conversion based on sheer intellectual argument.[30]  “The best argument for proving the Being of a God, or for laying the ground for Christianity . . . is that which arises out of a careful attention to the teachings of our heart, and a comparison between the claims of conscience and the announcements of the Gospel”[31] – prayer and revelation.  “Be sure, the highest reason is not to reason on system, or by rules of argument, but in a natural way . . . trusting to God’s blessing that you may gain a right impression from what you read. . .  Faith and obedience are the main things; believe and do, and pray to God for light, and you will reason well without knowing it.”[32]

In other writings Newman expressed two specific reservations about logical arguments for the existence of God:  1)  He did not like the idea of “putting God on trial”[33] by reducing divine Mystery to a problem to be argued and proved, and 2) he believed that “man is not a reasoning animal; he is a seeing, feeling, contemplating, acting animal, influenced by what is direct and precise.”[34]

An Essay in Aid of A Grammar of Assent[35] is Newman’s most mature and complete epistemological work written with a twofold purpose:  to show “that you can believe what you cannot understand, [and to show that] you can believe what you cannot absolutely prove”.[36]

When Newman speaks of “religion” he means the knowledge of God, of His Will and of our duties toward Him.  He identifies three main channels that Nature furnishes by which we acquire this knowledge: the course of the world (human life and human affairs), the voice of mankind, and our own minds.  The most authoritative of these three channels is our own minds which we use to test and interpret the other two.[37]

Newman’s argument from conscience from Grammar of Assent can be summarized as follows:

1)  Conscience points us to a “Supreme Governor, a Judge, holy, just, powerful, all-seeing, retributive.”[38]

2)  Conscience, like reason and memory, functions as a natural faculty.

3)  It is reasonable to trust natural faculties unless there is a compelling reason to doubt them.

4) Therefore, it is reasonable to trust conscience, and to believe in the reality of a Supreme Governor, Judge, holy . . .”[39]
IV.  Revelation

If Newman’s argument from conscience is solid and convincing, why is there also a role for Revelation?

“In saying all this, of course I must not be supposed to be limiting the Revelation of which the Church is the keeper to a mere republication of the Natural Law; but still it is true, that, though Revelation is so distinct from the teaching of nature and beyond it, yet it is not independent of it, nor without relations towards it, but is its complement, reassertion, issue, embodiment, and interpretation”[40]

Revelation completes Natural Law.

“Many is the time when they cannot tell how much that true inward Guide [conscience] commands, and how much comes from a mere earthly source. So that the gift of conscience raises a desire for what it does not itself fully supply. It inspires in them the idea of authoritative guidance, of a divine law; and the desire of possessing it in its fullness, not in mere fragmentary portions or indirect suggestion. It creates in them a thirst, an impatience, for the knowledge of that Unseen Lord, and Governor, and Judge, who as yet speaks to them only secretly, who whispers in their hearts, who tells them something, but not nearly so much as they wish and as they need . . . a religious man, who has not the blessing of the infallible teaching of revelation, is led to look out for it . . . I may say, of every religious man, who has not the knowledge of Christ: he is on the look-out.[41]

Wherever Natural Religion is lacking, conscience functions to prepare the way for the mystery of Divine Revelation.  Conscience is not a specific, defined, absolute point which gives way to revelation.  Rather it might be considered a pathway — or an echo chamber — or the threshold to revelation.

Newman called conscience “the aboriginal Vicar of Christ, a prophet in its informations, a monarch in its peremptoriness, a priest in its blessings and anathemas.”[42]  Thomas Norris states that “this appellation sets up what may be called the Christological context of conscience which, as a component of human nature, belongs to creation, but belongs to Christ in virtue of the incarnation and resurrection.  He who speaks in nature and creation by way of conscience is the same person who will speak in Revelation,” the necessary and essential – the ultimate and utmost, component of Christianity — the apophatic component, which is prepared in the realm of human conscience.

“Prepare the way of the Lord,
make his paths straight.

Every valley shall be filled,
and every mountain and hill shall be made low,

and the crooked shall be made straight,
and the rough ways made smooth;

and all flesh shall see the salvation of God.”

Luke 3:4b-6


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dulles, Avery.  Newman (Outstanding Christian Thinkers).  London: Continuum, 2005.

Dawson, David.  “Between the Cross and the Church: John Henry Newman’s Crisis of Conscience,” Anglican Theological Review, 66, no.4, 1984, P. 360-374.

Gaffney, James, “Newman on the Common Roots of Morality and Religion”, Journal of Religious Ethics, No. 1, Spring 1988, P. 143-159.

Newman, John Henry, An Essay in Aid of A Grammar of Assent.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1903. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/grammar/ (accessed November 13, 2010).

_________________, An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1909. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/development/ (accessed November 13, 2010).

_________________, Apologia Pro Vita Sua.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1908. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/apologia65/ (accessed November 13, 2010).

_________________, Callista: A Tale of the Third Century.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1901. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/callista/ (accessed November 15, 2010).

_________________, A Letter Addressed to the Duke of Norfolk on Occasion of Mr. Gladstone’s Recent Expostulation, (Certain Difficulties Felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teaching, Vol. II), http://www.newmanreader.org/works/ anglicans/volume2/gladstone/section5.html (accessed November 13, 2010).

_________________,  “Dispositions for Faith,” sermon no 5 from Sermons Preached on Various Occasions. pp 60-74.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1908. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/occasions/sermon5.html (accessed November 13, 2010).

_________________,  “Faith without Demonstration” sermon no 23 from Parochial and Plain Sermons, Vol. VI. pp 327-342.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1907. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/parochial/volume6/index.html  (accessed November 13, 2010).

_________________,  “The Influence of Natural and Revealed Religion Respectively” sermon no 2 from Oxford University Sermons. pp 16-36.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1909. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/oxford/sermon2.html (accessed November 13, 2010).

_________________,  “The Influence of Natural and Revealed Religion Respectively” sermon no 2 from Oxford University Sermons. pp 16-36.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1909. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/oxford/sermon2.html (accessed November 13, 2010).

_________________, “Religious Faith Rational” sermon no 15 from Parochial and Plain Sermons, Vol. I. pg. 190-202.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1907. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/parochial/volume1/index.html  (accessed November 13, 2010).

Newman, John Henry, “The Testimony of Conscience” sermon no 17 from Parochial and Plain Sermons, Vol. V. pp 237-253.  London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1907. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/parochial/volume5/index.html  (accessed November 13, 2010).

Norris, Thomas J., Newman and his Theological Method: A Guide for the Theologian Today.  Leiden, Netherlands:  E.J. Brill, 1977.

___________________, “Fidelity to Conscience: The Way to the Truth,” chapter 7 of Cardinal Newman for Today.  Hyde Park, NY:  New City Press, 2010.

O’Connell, Marvin Richard. 1985.  “Newman: the Victorian Intellectual as Pastor.”  Theological Studies 46, no.2: 329-344.  ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 10, 2010).

Ratzinger, Cardinal Joseph “Conscience and Truth” (presented at the 10th Workshop for Bishops, February, 1991, Dallas, TX).  http://www.ewtn.com/library/curia/ratzcons.htm (accessed November 15, 2010).

Strange, Roderick, Newman 101.  London: Darton, Longman and Todd Ltd., 2008.

Toohey, John J., S.J.  An Indexed Synopsis of the “Grammar of Assent”.  New York:  Longmans, Green and Co., 1906.

Wainwright, William J.  “Newman and the Argument from Conscience,” chapter 3 of Religion and Morality.  Burlington, VT:  Ashgate, 2005.


[1] John Henry Newman, Apologia Pro Vita Sua  (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1908, http://www.newmanreader.org/works/apologia65, accessed November 13, 2010), p 241.

[2] Footnote in Avery Dulles,  Newman: Outstanding Christian Thinkers  (London: Continuum, 2005), p 61, referring to Newman manuscript excerpted by James Collins in Philosophical Readings in Cardinal Newman (Chicago: Regnery, 1961), pp 193-4.

[3] Newman, Apologia, p 241.

[4] Newman, Apologia, p 241.

[5] Ibid.

[6] John Henry Newman,  “Dispositions for Faith,” sermon no 5 from Sermons Preached on Various Occasions. pp 60-74.  (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1908, http://www.newmanreader.org/works/occasions/

sermon5.html (accessed November 13, 2010) p 65.

[7] James Gaffney, “Newman on the Common Roots of Morality and Religion”, Journal of Religious Ethics, No. 1, Spring 1988, pp 156-157.

[8] John Henry Newman, An Essay in Aid of A Grammar of Assent  (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1903. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/grammar/, accessed November 13, 2010) pp 105-106,

[9] Ibid. 109-110.

[10] Newman makes the following statement in Grammar of Assent, p 104:  “I have already said I am not proposing here to prove the Being of a God; yet I have found it impossible to avoid saying where I look for the proof of it.”

[11] See Thomas J. Norris, “Fidelity to Conscience: The Way to the Truth,” chapter 7 of Cardinal Newman for Today (Hyde Park, NY:  New City Press, 2010, p 141-143) for a comparison of Newman’s illative sense and Aristotle’s teaching on phromesis or practical judgment.

[12] John Henry Newman, A Letter Addressed to the Duke of Norfolk on Occasion of Mr. Gladstone’s Recent Expostulation (Certain Difficulties Felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teaching, Vol. II, http://www.newmanreader.org/works/ anglicans/volume2/gladstone/section5.html, accessed November 13, 2010) pp 246-247.  

[13] Ibid. 248.

[14] John Henry Newman, “The Testimony of Conscience” sermon no 17 from Parochial and Plain Sermons, Vol V. pg. 237-253 (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1907, http://www.newmanreader.org/works/parochial/volume5/index.html, accessed November 13, 2010) p 238.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Ibid. 249.

[17] Ibid. 252.

[18] John Henry Newman, “The Testimony of Conscience” sermon no 17 from Parochial and Plain Sermons, Vol V. pp 237-253 (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1907, http://www.newmanreader.org/works/parochial/volume5/index.html, accessed November 13, 2010) p 240.

[19] Ibid. 238-239.

[20] John Henry Newman,  “Dispositions for Faith,” sermon no 5 from Sermons Preached on Various Occasions, pp 60-74.  (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1908. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/occasions/sermon5.html, accessed November 13, 2010) p 67.

[21] Newman, Grammar of Assent, pp 389-390.

[22] Ibid. 117-118.

[23] Thomas J. Norris, “Fidelity to Conscience: The Way to the Truth,” chapter 7 of Cardinal Newman for Today (Hyde Park, NY:  New City Press, 2010), p 146.

[24] Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger,  “Conscience and Truth” (presented at the 10th Workshop for Bishops, February, 1991, Dallas, TX)  http://www.ewtn.com/library/curia/ratzcons.htm (accessed November 15, 2010).

[25] Newman, Grammar of Assent, p 397.

[26] Newman, Letter to the Duke of Norfolk, p 246.

[27] James Gaffney, “Newman on the Common Roots of Morality and Religion”, Journal of Religious Ethics, No. 1, Spring 1988, p 143.

[28] John Henry Newman, Callista: A Tale of the Third Century. (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1901. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/callista/, accessed November 15, 2010) chap 28, p 314.

[29] Newman, Letter to the Duke of Norfolk, pp 253-254.

[30] Avery Dulles, Newman: Outstanding Christian Thinker (London: Continuum, 2005), p 48.

[31] Newman,  “Dispositions for Faith,” sermon no 5 from Sermons Preached on Various Occasions  (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1908. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/occasions/sermon5.html, accessed November 13, 2010) p 74.

[32]  Newman, “Faith without Demonstration” sermon no 23 from Parochial and Plain Sermons, Vol. VI. pp 327-3422.  (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1907. http://www.newmanreader.org/works/parochial/ volume6/index.html,  accessed November 13, 2010) p 341.

[33] See Grammar of Assent, p 426.

[34] John Henry Newman, An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine  (London:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1909, http://www.newmanreader.org/works/development/, accessed November 13, 2010) p 294.

[35] Included on the title page of Grammar of Assent is a favorite aphorism taken from St. Ambrose:  “Not in the art of dialectic has it pleased God to save his people.”

[36] Marvin Richard O’Connell, “Newman: the Victorian Intellectual as Pastor.”  Theological Studies 46, no.2, 1984: 329-344.  ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 10, 2010) p 338.  This quote by Newman was relayed by Edward Caswall, one of Newman’s colleagues at Edgbaston and was published in Dessain, Newman 148ff.

[37] Grammar of Assent, 390.

[38] Ibid. 110.

[39] See William J. Wainwright, “Newman and the Argument from Conscience,” chapter 3 of Religion and Morality.  (Burlington, VT:  Ashgate, 2005), pp 28ff, for challenges to Newman’s argument.

[40] Newman, Letter to the Duke of Norfolk, p 255.

[41] Newman, “Dispositions for Faith,” sermon no 5, p 66.

[42] Newman, Letter to the Duke of Norfolk, pp 248-249.

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